To be updated on upcoming classes and events, use the following social media!

Subscribe to our mailing list!

* indicates required





Follow Paw In Hand on Twitter


To view educational videos for helpful tips, check out YouTube! 

Subscribe to me on YouTube




Paw In Hand can accept the following payment methods:

Cash, Check, Visa, MasterCard, American Express, and Discover



Product Review: Kyjen Dog Games Tennis Slider


I was recently fortunate enough to have a product sent to me from Kyjen for review. The product is a Dog Puzzle Game called the Tennis Slider. To be honest, I was skeptical at first. The toy sells for almost $25, and while the idea of a toy with two hidden tennis ball chambers plus four hidden treat chambers was intriguing, I worried it would be more gimmicky than anything. The toy is also made of hard plastic, so I wondered how that would hold up to the abuse dished out by two large dogs.

Well, I opened up the package when it came and set it on the ground. The dogs thought it was Christmas time! Lenny immediately figured out how to open up the toy to reveal the two tennis balls it came with by bashing it with his paw. I added treats to the hidden compartments, and Lenny was quickly able to open the toy completely within two seconds, vacuum up the treats, and head off with both tennis balls in his gigantic mouth. Boo was less interested in learning how to open up the toy and more interested in sniping treats from Lenny once he did the grunt work of revealing them. I worked with Boo one on one, and in less than 30 seconds she had it figured out, too. She was a little more delicate at first, just nosing the toy around until centrifugal force opened the compartments on either side holding the tennis balls, but she quickly progressed to picking it up in her mouth and throwing it. Wouldn't you know it, that tactic works too!

The dogs have been playing with it off and on since Sunday. I have to keep it up except when I am supervising them, because otherwise there would be nothing left of the tennis balls. They really enjoy it though, and it has been fun to watch them problem solve. They get super excited when they see it come out to play, and I even heard some dog laughter from Boo this morning as she was playing with it. 

What about my concerns of it's durability? To be honest, this is the criteria that kills most toys for us. I don't want to spend anything more than $5 on a toy that isn't going to last the hour. This is why we have absolutely no squeaky toys in our house anymore- they all get destroyed in minutes, even "indestructable" ones. So the dogs (until this toy) have played almost exclusively with toys from the Kong company, because the rubber stands up to their chewing power. Still, after about four days of abuse, being punched and scratched by dog paws and thrown around and opened and closed and opened and closed and opened and closed some more, I am impressed by how well it is standing up. Nothing has broken off, and there are only some minor scratches in the top surface of the toy. This is amazing, as I know the power in Lenny's paws! The latches to close the tennis ball compartments are a bit looser, I think, than they were originally. They certainly are looser than I would ideally like now that the dogs now how to open it, because there's not much challenge to get the balls out. However, the top slider still offers a bit of a challenge for the dogs- they have to work at it for a few seconds before it opens. 

So, what is my overall opinion of this toy? It gets high marks from me. I would give it a 4.5 out of 5. The dogs, I know, would give it a 5 out of 5- they adore this toy! I love the shape and overall design of the toy, and I love the premise of making the dogs think and problem solve. I am impressed by the durability so far, but the jury is still out as far as overall durability (time will tell, and I will report, on how long this durability lasts). The dogs haven't played with it a whole lot over all, because otherwise I would be resetting it every minute or more- the tennis balls are where all the time is at, and even that isn't much for my dogs (otherwise there would be no tennis balls, as I mentioned previously). I only wish there was a way to make it harder for the dogs as their skill level increases or that the latches were a bit stickier and harder to open. I would definitely recommend this toy to anyone who has a dog who needs to work their mind a bit more. I would think it would also be useful for anxious dogs, and I defiinitely plan to use this to distract Lenny next time there is a thunderstorm. For sale for $24.99, I would say this is worth the price!


Below are some videos of the dogs playing with the toy. These videos are also available for viewing on Paw In Hand's YouTube channel!





Book Review: Inside of a Dog

I recently finished reading a delightful book that I stumbled upon in the Dubuque library. It was written by Alexandra Horowitz and is titled Inside of a Dog: What Dogs See, Smell, and Know. The author is a cognitive scientist, and she writes with clear, understandable, thoughtful science, interspersing wonderful little anecdotes throughout the book. I loved how she described the various experiments discussed in the book, as well as how she explained her theories about what is going on in dogs' heads and why she came to that conclusion. While I disagree on a fair bit of what she mentioned training wise, this book is highly valuable for the understanding inside it, despite our different views on how to apply that understanding toward dog training. The 301 pages of content are jam packed with information, with an additional 29 pages of notes and cited sources (so you can look up all the experiments she mentions and read the research yourself if you want!)

One of the things I enjoyed was the layout of the book. Alexandra Horowitz takes the reader through what science knows about dogs by first introducing the concept of umwelt (using science to safely anthropomorphism, that is, to put yourself in the dog's shoes and see life as your dog might see it) and then explains what science knows about the various senses of dogs so that in later chapters she can put that all together to display the umwelt of the dog as she sees it. She uses lots of historical and current research to back up her ideas and to lead to new questions, and she explores the limits of what science can and can not tell us about how our dogs see the world. Finally, she uses the umwelt she has laid out for the reader to theorize on how best we can pamper our pooches.

I loved how she handled anthropomorphization- not just dismissing it as altogether harmful. But also acknowledging the good qualities about it and the fact that people are going to anthropomorphize. She then takes the reader through where the pitfalls might be so we can avoid them, and using umwelt to guide your conclusions seems like a cool way to go from my point of view. She doesn't shy away from delving into the theoretical, either.

All in all, I love this book. Amazon has it listed right now for only $17.82, so it's a good deal if you plan to get a copy for yourself. I think it's a great book for any dog owner interested in learning more about their dog and getting closer to their dog to read, so I am seriously considering adding it to my library. If the Dubuque library didn't already have a copy, it would be a no-brainer. Check it out!


"Vicious Breeds"

There are many myths that abound in society than I and other trainers are constantly working to debunk. Among the constant streams of "his tail's wagging, so he's happy" and "what could my dog be stressed about" and "she knows what I'm saying- she's just stubborn", we hear constantly about so-called "vicious breeds". This makes no sense. Why would people willingly breed animals dangerous to humans? To be sure, there are plenty of disreputable breeders out there, and aggression can have a genetic component. However, these comprise a small sunset of the population. Most owners do not want vicious, dangerous dogs, and most dogs out there are not vicious or dangerous. Why have we let the exception overwhelm us and become the rule?



I think the answer is a combination of mis-education and fear. Pitbulls are the breed popular to hate these days. When you hear about a dog attack in the news and the breed is identified, chances are the dog is identified as a Pitbull. But are all pits really dangerous? First of all, let's examine the fact that so many dogs in the media that attack are identified as pitbulls. Chances are the media did not do a background check into the dog's lineage to determine that fact. The truth is, many, many breeds are mis-identified as pitbulls. I challenge you to go to Find the Pit and look through the pictures there. How many wrong answers did you select before finding the one Pitbull pictured? For full disclosure, let me tell you that I have worked hard on appropriately identifying breeds by look, although I regularly disclaim mixes as impossible to know for sure, and I guessed wrong once before I found the Pitbull. There were a few I thought might have been the pit but I didn't guess them. I did click on the Alapaha blue blood bulldog as a pit, only to find out I was wrong, and the other two that I nearly chose but didn't were the Presa Canario and Cane Corso, both of which I hope I would have correctly identified in person! How well did you do? Did you find the pit right away, or was it difficult? How much experience do you have identifying breeds? Now imagine how hard it may be for someone in the heat of the moment or who does not have a lot of experience in breed identification to correctly identify an attacking dog as a Blackmouth Cur or a Fila Brasiliero rather than saying "Pitbull" (not that either of those breeds are inherently vicious, either).

I hope the quiz opens your eyes to the vast amount of misidentification that occurs so often in the media. That doesn't mean no Pitbulls bite, but instead I hope you will think twice before accepting it on someone's word that the dog was a Pitbull. One personal example of breed mis-identification that I have is a Bull Terrier that was adopted out to a town that had a Pitbull ban. As a Bull Terrier is not a Pitbull, no one thought twice until the town government began harassing the poor owners and their dog. These owners were super responsible dog owners, and wonderful people. Their dog was a gem of a dog- sweet and well behaved. Nevertheless, because of the judge first and ask questions later view of this town, the dog ended up back at the shelter, where she had to wait to find a new home through no fault of her own, and no fault of her owners. We at the shelter were stunned, because none of us though she looked anything like a Pitbull, but apparently to the untrained eye, Bull Terriers and Pitbulls look an awful lot alike.

The other thing is that so many dogs are mixes. The quiz I linked to above used only purebred dog pictures from the breeders, so you can imagine how it can compound the problem when the lineage is unknown or mixed. I have done a DNA test on both of my dogs, and if the results are to be believed, they are very surprising indeed, and no one has once guessed either correctly. For instance Boo, who I call a Lab mix apparently has as much Maltese as Lab in her. No one ever guesses she's a Maltese mix. Now imagine instead of Maltese, it was Pitbull, and also imagine we lived in a community where pits were restricted (thankfully, we do not). Should she, who looks just like a Lab, be restricted for her heritage just like the dog next door, who may be as much or even less pit than her, but look more pit just thanks to genetics? Obviously this is just a thought experiment, but I think it is still valuable to ponder. When has judging something purely on its looks ever done good in the long run? Instead, to ban all Pitbulls or immediately classify all pitbulls as vicious right off the bat is merely a slippery slope and supports myths that have no basis in fact.

The plain truth of the matter is that owners have the most effect on their dog's temperament for the vast majority of dogs. There are dogs out there with a genetic basis for aggression, and these dogs can be extremely hard to work with, but they are not confined to any one breed. There are also dogs out there with brain rumors and neurological problems that can respond suddenly and without warning with aggression. Again, these problems are not limited to a particular breed. The rest of the aggression (that which is not caused by an underlying genetic or health component) is behavioral and likely results from training or environment or lack of socialization, or some combination thereof. I work aggression cases, and hands down the most aggressive dog that I have worked with was a little Rat Terrier, although I did consult on a Chihuahua/Rat Terrier mix that was even more aggressive. Personal and professional experience have taught me that aggression is not limited to one breed, nor are all members of a breed going to act the same way (aggressive or not).

What about the fact that some breeds were bred to fight? Doesn't that have anything to do with where we are now? Let's explore the background of some breeds and see where that takes us. The American Pit Bull Terrier was founded from bulldogs and English terriers to provide a dog with great athleticism and gameness. This dog was used to hunt, drive cattle, and as a family pet. Because they are so loyal and driven, they made good blood sport dogs, but any aggression toward humans was a serious fault resulting in the destruction of the dog. Wikipedia has an interesting list of dog breeds that have been used at some point in time for dog-fighting. However, dog fighting is not the only blood sport humans have enjoyed. What about bull-baiting, bear-baiting, wolf-baiting, ratting, and other blood sports? These sports are not for the entertainment of dogs, but humans, and humans have developed many, many breeds including bulldogs, wolfhounds, Dogue de Bordeaux, and many many terriers. Any of the ancient Molossor dogs (many of which turned into Mastiff-types) have a history of violence, as they were kept for guarding and protecting, driving, herding, and fighting. Their descendants include Saint Bernards, Newfoundlands, Boston Terriers, Boxers, Bulldogs, Bullmastiffs, Great Danes, Rottweilers, Pugs, and more. Should all of these dogs have severe restrictions on them because of their history of fighting and protecting? If so, many people would be very upset to lose their beloved companions.

How about those towns that have banned certain breeds? It turns out breed bans don't make towns safer. In fact, both the CDC and the AVMA have declared that there is no scientific basis for breed specific legislation ( According to the NCRC, breed bans in Sioux City and in Miami-Dade county, among others, resulted in no decline in dog bites (in fact, the number increased for Sioux City). In addition, the cost to enforce such laws vastly outweighs any possible benefit, partly because dog bites are so rare (in the grander scheme of things) and aggression is not a single-breed problem. Let's take a look at bite statistics. For a list of media reports on dog bites (Warning: Could be depressing!), go to For more information of the research and statistics on dog bites, check out the National Canine Research Council. Let's look at the Tri-state area. According to the National Canine Research Council, there have been four dog bite related fatalities in Iowa in the last 47 years, regardless of breed. There have been 28 in Illinois in the last 47 years, and 15 in Wisconsin in the same timeframe. That's 47 fatal dog bites in Illinois, Wisconsin, and Iowa in 47 years. While I agree that this number needs to decrease, motor vehicles, guns, second hand smoke, and many other things we are exposed to every day contribute to more fatalities than dog bites. And the kicker is that schnauzer-related deaths are included in the number, right alongside Labs and Pitbulls and German Shepherds and other big dogs. Dogs as small as West Highland White Terriers and Schnauzers have killed. Just because a dog is smaller does not mean they are "safe". What is a measure of the level of danger is not the size of the dog, but the dog's behavior and the owner's behavior.

So to my mind it makes far more sense to stress responsible pet ownership, responsible breeding, and bite safety education to meet this goal of lowering the incidence of dog bites even further (especially medically serious dog bites!) rather than per-judging a breed. The fact is, many of the targeted breeds do have a history of violence, just like the dachshund bred for badger hunting and the Newfoundland with Molossor blood. However, just because a breed has been used for violence in the past, or even currently, does not mean all individuals of the breed should be restricted or eliminated. Similarly, a few people making poor choices is no reason to condemn a community. The truth is, even with those breeds currently abused in dog fighting rings (like pitbulls), there are many, many breeders who are carefully continuing the line to preserve all the good qualities of the breed and who work hard to continue producing wonderful family pets. So instead of pre-judging breeds, let's eliminate dog fighting, let's encourage responsible pet ownership and education, and let's have high standard for our breeders to be sure they are producing puppies from mentally, emotionally, and physically sound lines.


The "S" word

In the dog training world, you hear about it all the time. As a trainer, I am taking about it constantly. For puppies and fearful dogs, it is all important. I am talking, of course, about socialization.

I figured I would continue with the puppy theme I've been doing lately and talk about the crucial topic of socialization. Basically, from age 6 weeks to age 16 weeks is a critical period in the puppy's life. Experiences that take place in this window tend to have a stronger impact on the puppy's personality and outlook on life than if those same experiences took place a few weeks or even months later. This is why puppy owners are counseled so strongly to get their puppies out into the world and expose them to life, while at the same time being careful to avoid high risk of exposure to diseases until their immune system is more mature. It is a tough tightrope to walk.

I am not a vet, and so I will advise you to talk to your vet about the risk of disease. However, I can tell you from a behavior standpoint, it is so much easier to prevent problems through socialization, especially when the puppy already has a fearful or nervous personality, than it is to try to remedially socialize an adult dog. It takes many times more exposures for an adult dog to approach the same effect that one single exposure has on a puppy inside the critical timeframe.

So what do you need to make sure your puppy is exposed to? Here are a few suggestions:


Grass, cement, and dirt, parking lots
Carpet, tile, linoleum, rugs, and shiny indoor commercial flooring like at pet stores
Manhole covers, metal flooring
Surfaces that move a bit or wobble beneath their feet, like clanging sidewalk plates or swinging bridges


Rain, snow, heat, and cold (being careful not to go to extremes and harm your pup)
Dog-friendly events
Car rides (shorter at first, then longer)
Kong toys (lightly stuffed first, then progressively harder)
Your vet's office and staff, groomer's office and staff, boarding kennel or pet sitter and staff
Fireworks (from a far distance), alarms, traffic, doorbells, jackhammers
Buses, motorcycles
Planes, trains, sirens, etc
Vacuum cleaner, broom, and lawn mower, snow blower
Forest, meadow, beach, mountain/bluff, rivers, ponds, large bodies of water, farm


Umbrellas (opened and closed), rain coats, jackets, and winter coats, costume or unusual clothes
Caps, baseball hats, and wide-brimmed hats, helmets, hoodies, backpacks, large purses
Canes, walking sticks, walkers
Pots, pans, blankets, rugs, fans, balloons, gs blowing in wind
Sunglasses and regular glasses
Direct eye contact, direct eye contact with forward movement, direct eye contact with smile and forward movement
Bikes, trikes, wheelchairs, skateboards, rollerblades, scooters, and other wheeled non-motorized vehicles


Infants squealing, crawling, in stroller or carrier
Children standing, walking, running, skipping, and jumping
Children being quiet, saying hi to the puppy, and being loud and obnoxious and playful
Men, especially larger, taller men, men with beards, men with deep voices
People of various ethnic backgrounds
People with handicaps
The mail carrier and delivery person
People in uniforms

Other Animals:

Other dogs, both small, large, male, and female
Farm animals (if your puppy is at all likely to be exposed at a later date), cats, birds


Leash, collar, harness, and other equipment you will use regularly
Bathing, nail trims, teeth brushing, and other grooming rituals
Hugs, restraint, and head pats

In all of these, you need to be careful that these are good experiences. If you have an "oops", then be sure you seek out that very same category of socialization for 7 good experiences to every one bad experience, the sooner the better.


Puppy Picker: Which Pup to Choose?

Okay, so you've settled on a breed, and you've found a couple responsible breeders and/or shelters with litters to choose from. You go to look at a litter, but you have 4, 6, or more individuals to choose from. How do you decide who to bring home?

Let's look first at gender. Is a male or a female the better fit for you? Many people already have a preference, and that is fine. Take a look at the breeds you've chosen to see if there tend to be differences in gender for that breed. For instance, many people say that male Labs tend to be sweeter than female Labs, where as in other breeds the female may be more assertive than the males! Females are thought to be easier to housebreak in general, but really that is often because of the marking instinct of intact males. This means your neutered male may be just as easy to housebreak as your neighbor's female, and oh by the way, your intact female may also mark (and draw in intact males from the entire neighborhood when she's in heat!). 

One true gender trend is that males tend to be larger than females in almost every breed. Neutering (for males) is generally a little cheaper than spaying (for females), and males tend to recover much more quickly. In fact, I've known many males who don't even appear to notice that anything is missing after their neuter (though to be fair, I've also seen a few females that match this model. A trend is, in fact, only a trend)!

Regardless of whether you choose male or female, you need to realize that there tend to be some changes if you do "fix" your dog. No, your spayed female or neutered male is not doomed to get fat (unless you over-feed and under-exercise), but neutering generally decreases aggression in males and spaying tends to reduce mood swings in females. Because of the pet overpopulation crisis, I would highly recommend neutering and spaying any puppy who is not a purebred bought specifically to continue the line (and even then they should be exceptional individuals of that breed, and in the hands of an experienced and super-responsible breeder!). Add to this that by fixing your dog you also eliminate the chances of certain cancers and reduce the likelihood of some behavior problems (marking and running, for instance), and to me it's a no brainer. But I digress.

In choosing an individual, you need to think about if you have any dogs already at home, or dogs which the puppy will be playing with often. If so, you will want to pick a dog that is compatible with the dogs you already have. If you have a couple of rough and tumble dogs at home, think twice about bringing home that sweet but shy little one! Sometimes you can bring out the resident dogs to meet the new arrival so you can see if they hit it off. If at all possible, jump on this chance! It will give you invaluable information!

When looking at inter-dog relations, many people want to know what combination of dogs won't fight. In truth, males will fight males, females will fight females, and males and females will also fight. It all depends on the circumstances. In general, however, the fights between female and female tend to do the most damage and be the most furious. 

In some cases, all the other pups will be chosen, and your choice is easy. In other cases, your choices seem endless. Rather than picking a puppy based on appearance, I would urge you to pick a puppy based on personality. Which pup's personality will work best in your home? Which will mesh best with your lifestyle and your personality?

Some trainers believe that the ideal puppy personality for an individual is a personality similar to their own. If you are a socially-sensitive person, you may want a socially-sensitive puppy. If you are confident and self-assertive, you may enjoy a similarly confident pup. It is rare for a nervous, shy puppy to enjoy a loud, boisterous home, and it is equally rare for a boisterous pup to be handled well by a shy, timid person.

For a light-hearted look into personalities, try reading Dogology, by Vicki Croke and Sarah Wilson. For the more serious and specifically minded, I would recommend a temperament (or aptitude) test. The most important part of any aptitude test is to be careful not to hurt or scare the pup. You want to test the puppies, ideally, around 7 weeks of age. 

Perhaps the most popular aptitude test is the Volhard Aptitude test, which has been around for a long time. You can read through the test here. It was designed by Joachim and Wendy Volhard. This involves tests for sociability, will to follow, acceptance of restraint, social and elevation dominance, retrieving, touch, sight, and sound sensitivity, and also a startle test. 

Be aware that temperament testing only predicts behavior. Since training and socialization also impact the later personality of the grown dog, there is no guarantee in temperament testing. It is only designed to be a tool to help you decide on an individual who is most likely to fit your needs and desires. 

How did you choose your last puppy?